The Project Team

Archon Fung Photo

Archon Fung (Chief of Party and Principal Investigator)

Archon Fung is the Ford Foundation Professor of Democracy and Citizenship and Academic Dean at the Harvard Kennedy School. His research examines the impacts of civic participation, public deliberation, and transparency upon governance. He is the author or editor of eight books including Full Disclosure: The Perils and Promise of Transparency (Cambridge University Press, with Mary Graham and David Weil) and Empowered Participation: Reinventing Urban Democracy (Princeton University Press), as well as over fifty articles. He also co-directs the Transparency Policy Project at the Harvard Kennedy School–an interdisciplinary group that examines the impacts of information disclosure upon public risk and accountability around the world–and leads the democracy initiative of the Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation.



Jean Arkedis Photo

Jean Arkedis (Principal Investigator)

Jean Arkedis is a Program Director at R4D working on impact evaluation and learning. She joined R4D from the Clinton Health Access Initiative, where she launched and managed a portfolio of impact evaluations in Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda to test innovative interventions to improve access, uptake and appropriate use of malaria treatment. Previously, she worked on aid reform and development programs in Africa at the State Department, USAID, and on a secondment to the Center for Global Development. She has a masters degree from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) with a focus in International Economics and Development and a BA from Duke University.



Jessica Creighton Photo

Jessica Creighton (Program Manager & Researcher)

Jessica Creighton is an Assistant Director at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. In addition to managing the T4D project, she contributes to intervention design, research design, and writing. Prior to joining the T4D team, Ms. Creighton provided field management and research assistance to the Reconciliation, Conflict and Development project, a randomized controlled trial with Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA) in Sierra Leone. Ms. Creighton holds an Ed.M. in International Education Policy from the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a B.A. in Political Science from Tulane University.



Akshay Dixit (Research Fellow)

Akshay Govind Dixit works with Professors Dan Levy and Ryan Sheely, focusing on projects that deal with governance, citizen participation and service delivery. Before joining EPoD, Akshay worked as an Accountability Consultant for Save the Children Denmark & UK. His role involved helping the organisation conceptualise a "Common Approach" to Social Accountability programs, designing a Randomised Evaluation in Bangladesh, and providing technical support to programs in Africa and Asia. He has spent two years in Bangladesh - as a Research Associate at Innovations for Poverty Action, and then as Senior Manager for Social Policy Research at Save the Children. He holds an MA in International & Development Economics from Yale University.



Stephen Kosack Photo

Stephen Kosack (Principal Investigator)

Stephen Kosack is an Assistant Professor of Public Affairs at the University of Washington and a Senior Research Fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School. His work focuses on policymaking decisions in developing countries. He is the author of a number of academic articles on human development, education, civil society, transparency and accountability, foreign aid, foreign-direct investment, and democratic governance as well as two books, The Education of Nations: How the Political Organization of the Poor, Not Democracy, Led Governments to Invest in Mass Education (Oxford University Press, 2012), and From the Ground Up: Improving Government Performance with Independent Monitoring Organizations (Brookings Institution Press, 2010; with Charles Griffin and Courtney Tolmie) and a number of policy pieces for organizations like the UNDP and the Brookings Institution. Before joining the University of Washington, he was an economics advisor to the late Senator Ted Kennedy, a research fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, and taught at Brown, the London School of Economics, and the Harvard Kennedy School.



Dan Levy Photo

Dan Levy (Principal Investigator)

Dan Levy, Senior Lecturer in Public Policy and Faculty Chair of the Kennedy School’s SLATE (Strengthening Learning and Teaching Excellence) Initiative, teaches courses in quantitative methods and program evaluation. He recently directed impact evaluations of girl-friendly school construction programs in Burkina Faso and Niger. He was recently involved in the evaluation of a conditional cash transfer program in Jamaica, a technical assistance project to Mexico’s Social Development Ministry (Sedesol), the evaluation of an after-school program in the U.S., and a methodological review of studies comparing the use of various methods to estimate program impacts. He has served as a senior researcher at Mathematica Policy Research, a faculty affiliate at the Poverty Action Lab (MIT), and as consultant to several organizations including the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Global Development Network (GDN). He received his Ph.D. in Economics from Northwestern University, grew up in Venezuela, and is fluent in Spanish and French.



Courtney Tolmie Photo

Courtney Tolmie (Principal Investigator)

​Courtney Tolmie is a Senior Program Director at the Results for Development Institute (R4D) and Harvard Kennedy School Research Fellow. Since joining R4D in 2007, Courtney leads the Social Accountability and Think Tank Support work at R4D. Before joining R4D, Courtney was a consultant at the Washington-based Women’s Edge Coalition and led research on community health activities at the University of Virginia and University of Venda (South Africa). She is co-author of Lives in the Balance: Improving Accountability for Public Spending in Developing Nations (Brookings Press), From the Ground Up (Brookings Press), and Using PETS to Monitor Projects and Small-Scale Programs (World Bank). Courtney graduated from Bowdoin College (B.A. Economics) and holds a Masters of Arts in Economics from the University of Virginia.



Preston Whitt (Senior Program Associate)

Preston Whitt joined R4D and the Transparency for Development project in May 2016 as a Senior Program Associate.  Previously, he spent three years at the Open Government Partnership helping national researchers prepare fact-based evaluations of their governments' compliance with OGP commitments around transparency, accountability, and civic participation. Preston received both his MA and his BA from the George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs, where he studied international political economy. 



James Rasaiah (Program Assistant)

James works to support the Transparency for Development (T4D) and China programs at the Ash Center of the Harvard Kennedy School. He holds a Masters in Post-War Recovery Studies from the University of York (UK), and prior to joining the Ash Center worked with a small NGO to deliver water, education and food security projects to marginalized communities in rural Thailand. He has previous experience conducting field work in Thailand, Kosovo and Iraqi Kurdistan.




Transparency for Development is a collaboration of scholars and practitioners at the Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government, Results for Development Institute, and the Evans School of Public Policy and Governance at the University of Washington. In Indonesia the project has partnered with PATTIRO (the Center for Regional Information and Studies), and in Tanzania our partner is the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI).  The project also works closely with the JPAL Southeast Asia office in Indonesia.

Ash Center at the Harvard Kennedy School

The Ash Center is the largest research center at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government (HKS), a leading public policy graduate institution.  Established in 2003 with endowments from the Ford Foundation and Roy and Lila Ash, the Center’s mission is to address critical issues of democratic governance and create more effective and responsive governments through rigorous research and teaching.  The Transparency for Development project overlaps with three of the Center’s core programs: the Democratic Governance program’s “Challenge to Democracy” initiative, which focuses on the study, teaching and dissemination of solutions to real world problems facing democratic governance and is the largest source of funding for HKS degree students, doctoral students, and post-doctoral fellowships for students from developing countries; the Innovations in Government program, which recognizes and promotes effective problem solving in government through several initiatives, including the Global Public Innovation Network, a worldwide alliance that gathers and disseminates knowledge about innovations in public-service provision, public action, and governance; and the Rajawali Foundation Institute for Asia (RIFA), which offers tailored programs of research—including the development of conceptual frameworks, analyses of local policy challenges to enhance the capacity of public institutions in Asia, and policy papers on government reform and strategic policy issues—as well as graduate-level teaching, and executive training for China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Singapore, Taiwan and Vietnam. The Center has also had a special focus on governance in Indonesia since 2010: the Harvard Kennedy School Indonesia Program works with students and faculty in Indonesia and at HKS to promote more effective public policy analysis about issues of public service delivery and government reform in Indonesia, including bringing Indonesian researchers and policymakers to the Harvard Kennedy School, implementing short courses for government officials and university researchers, and sponsoring faculty research on key public policy topics.

Results for Development Institute

Results for Development Institute (R4D) is a non-profit organization whose mission is to unlock solutions to tough development challenges that prevent people in low- and middle-income countries from realizing their full potential. Using multiple approaches in multiple sectors, including Global Education, Global Health, Governance and Market Dynamics, R4D supports the discovery and implementation of new ideas for reducing poverty and improving lives around the world.

University of Washington Evans School of Public Policy and Governance

Founded in 1962 as one of the nation's first independent schools of public affairs at a public university, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Policy & Governance provides a comprehensive curriculum and hands-on experiential learning opportunities that prepare students to be public service leaders in diverse communities across the country and throughout the world.  The Evans School is ranked among the top ten public affairs schools by U.S. News & World Report and is among the nation's top programs in research productivity, research quality, and institutional impact.

PATTIRO (Indonesia)

PATTIRO (Center for Regional Information and Studies) was founded on 17 April 1999 in Jakarta as a research and advocacy organization dedicated to improving governance, service delivery, and public participation in Indonesian politics. Its particular focus is on improving the quality of governance following Indonesia’s decentralization, through three strategic focus areas: social accountability, transparency, and public finance management reform. Currently PATTIRO has a staff of 150, including 38 full-time staff (11 senior researchers and 7 master facilitators) in Jakarta and more than 120 project staff in the field. PATTIRO has worked or is currently working in 17 provinces and more than 70 regencies and cities in Indonesia. PATTIRO also manages the PATTIRO Network, which consists of 15 chapters and 5 project offices spread across Indonesia.

CHAI (Tanzania)

The Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) was founded in 2002 with a transformational goal: help save the lives of millions of people living with HIV/AIDS in the developing world by dramatically scaling up antiretroviral treatment. CHAI’s focus is transformational work that creates a fundamental change in the way actors approach and realize goals. To do this, the degree of impact of a CHAI program must be dramatic, the scale must be at the national or global level, the breadth must change the way others approach the problem, and the sustainability must allow for CHAI’s eventual exit without erosion of impact.  Today, CHAI operates in 38 countries across the developing world and more than 70 countries are able to access CHAI-negotiated price reductions, vaccines, medical devices, and diagnostics.

JPAL Southeast Asia (Indonesia)

The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), established in 2003, is a research institute within the Economics Department of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge. J-PAL aims to tackle development challenges by ensuring that policies are informed by scientific evidence. To do this, J-PAL engages in three main activities, that is (1) conducting randomized evaluations (REs) in order to test and improve the effectiveness of programs and policies; (2) disseminating research results and building partnerships with policymakers; and (3) capacity building to equip local practitioners with the expertise to carry out their own REs.  Officially launched in 2013, J-PAL Southeast Asia (J-PAL SEA) is based at the University of Indonesia’s Institute for Economic and Social Research within the Faculty of Economics and Business (LPEM FEB Ul). In Indonesia, J-PAL researchers have worked closely with policymakers to conduct rigorous evaluations of programs and to integrate their findings into policy. In the past, we have worked with the National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas), the National Team for the Acceleration of Poverty Reduction (TNP2K), and the World Bank, among others. Past evaluations have explored methods to improve the targeting of social programs and reduce leakages in their delivery. Currently, several other projects—on maternal and child health, migration, and agriculture, for example—are in development or ongoing.

WASH-NET (Sierra Leone)

WASH-Net’s mission is to contribute to the development of Sierra Leone by supporting access to safe water for poor and marginalized groups, as well as engaging government and other stakeholders to ensure that these services are delivered effectively to all citizens. Their objectives are to promote multi-stakeholder processes at the national, district and regional levels, pioneer joint actions and learning to address water, sanitation and sanitation issues, and at the same time provide policy options that will adequately represent the interest and demands of communities as far as sanitation and water resources are concerned.

Ghana Center for Democratic Development (Ghana)

CDD-Ghana is an independent, nonpartisan and nonprofit organization based in Accra, Ghana. CDD-Ghana is dedicated to the promotion of a society and government based on the rule of law, appropriate checks on the power of the state, and integrity in public administration.

Malawi Economic Justice Network (Malawi)

The Malawi Economic Justice Network (MEJN) was established in the year 2000 after a meeting of 27 civil society organizations to coordinate the involvement of civil society in economic governance. Since then, MEJN has established itself as a major civil society voice on issues of economic governance in Malawi that strives to create partnerships that will ensure government policies and actions are of direct benefit to the poor, while also creating sustainability in civil society policy engagement. MEJN’s membership includes NGOs, community-based organizations and trade unions, as well as representatives of the media and academia.



Data Collection

Transparency for Development contracted with Economic Development Initiatives (EDI) in Tanzania and SurveyMETER in Indonesia for baseline data collection. For observational data collection throughout the intervention, T4D contracted with Ideas in Action Ltd. (iAct) in Tanzania and SurveyMETER in Inodnesia.  

Economic Development Initiatives (EDI)

The EDI Group designs, implements, manages and supports a wide range of socio-economic surveys through the provision of world class services, tools and innovations.

From our Tanzanian offices in Bukoba and Dar es Salaam, we conduct many surveys throughout East Africa, on behalf of National Governments, donors, research institutes and foundations.  These normally cover large sample groups (2000+) and include, impact evaluations, panel surveys, health and biometric data collection amongst others.

Through our UK office we provide survey expertise to clients in around 50 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas who use our world class Surveybe electronic data collection software and provide a range of professional, technical and consultancy services.

Our staff are vital to our success and as a positive result of having such an experienced, international and cosmopolitan team we have members fluent in French, Spanish, English, Dutch, German, Afrikaans, Swahili, Creole, Hindi, Telugu, Luganda, Tamil, as well numerous local dialects.  We are proud of the fact that the majority of our staff team have been working with us for over five years.

Ideas in Action (iAct)

Ideas in Action Limited (‘iAct’) provides a platform for ideas generated from multiple disciplines to be transformed into tangible output. Specifically iAct has units to: provide teams that can conduct qualitative and quantitative research; implement research ideas that have undergone a proof of concept phase with promising results so that the findings can directly impact the community; develop software-based ideas into user friendly applications; develop paper and electronic based data collections tool and provide trained individuals for field data collection; perform data analysis so that data-oriented ideas can be transformed into actions; support any other ideas (AOI) with potentials to be transformed into tangible products.


SurveyMETER is a non-governmental research institute that was established on February 20, 2002 with its main office in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. SurveyMETER aims to help provide insight to policy makers and the general public with a better understanding of the factors that influence healthy public policy and sustainability, and provide accurate and reliable data. To achieve this, SurveyMETER works with institutions, policy makers, and researchers both domestically and internationally to design, plan, and implement high-quality data collection. SurveyMETER aims to help improve the design of social policy, the economy, education, health, and disaster relief by improving the quality of research in which the policy is established.

Innovations for Poverty Action (Tanzania and Sierra Leone)

Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA) is a research and policy nonprofit that discovers and promotes effective solutions to global poverty problems. IPA brings together researchers and decision-makers to design, rigorously evaluate, and refine these solutions and their applications, ensuring that the evidence created is used to improve the lives of the world’s poor.





The Transparency for Development Project is generously funded by:

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
The Hewlett Foundation
The UK Department for International Development

The project is brokered by the Transparency and Accountability Initiative



Ethnographic Researchers

An important and unique component of the Transparency for Development evaluation is intensive field research conducted by trained ethnographers based in project treatment villages for 6-12 months during the intervention in 2016.  The ethnographers undertook research to reveal findings regarding mechanisms that citizens used to improve health services and utilization and the role that context played in the success of the intervention.



Iqra Anugrah Photo

Iqra Anugrah (Indonesia)

Iqra Anugrah is a Ph.D. candidate in Political Science and Southeast Asian Studies at Northern Illinois University and holds degrees from Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University and Ohio University. He is also a visiting research fellow at the Institute for Economic and Social Research, Education, and Information (LP3ES) in Jakarta, Indonesia and scheduled to take up a visiting fellowship at the University of Sydney’s Southeast Asia Centre (SSEAC) in 2016. He is currently writing his dissertation on the politics of elite-peasant relations in post-authoritarian Indonesia. His works have been published in venues such as Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, Indonesia (Cornell University Press), and IIAS Newsletter/New Asia Books, among others.



Megan Cogburn Photo

Megan Cogburn (Tanzania)

Megan Cogburn is a MA/PhD candidate in medical anthropology at the University of Florida (UF), specializing in the areas of maternal health governance, gender, and development in East Africa. She has a B.A. in Anthropology from Wheaton College, and worked for two years as a program manager for a NGO based in northern Tanzania. Her focus was in public health and education projects within Maasai communities, and she helped start a sexual and reproductive health education pilot program for high school girls. Megan founded her own NGO in 2012, and continues her involvement with her NGO work while pursuing her graduate studies at UF. Megan is the recipient of two academic Foreign Language and Area Studies fellowships in Swahili, and is a student editor for the African Studies Quarterly run out of the vibrant community at UF's Center for African Studies. 



Mohamed Yunus Rafiq (Tanzania)

Mohamed Yunus Rafiq is a Ph.D. candidate in the Anthropology Department at Brown University with research interest in the intersection of state, religion and public health. Formerly, Mohamed co-founded and managed Aang Serian Peace Village, a Tanzanian NGO based in Arusha, Tanzania for over five years working in education and indigenous knowledge. One of Aang Serian's main goals was to utilize Tanzania's diverse indigenous knowledge to create sustainable and ethical development responses.  Mohamed is a previous recipient of the prestigious Jacob Javits, Wenner Gren and Fulbright Hays fellowships. For the past two years, Mohamed has been conducting doctoral field research in rural Morogoro and Tanga on the role of Muslim religious leaders in public health programs in Tanzania. Apart from his academic interests, Mohamed is a fiction writer and an independent documentary maker. His recent creative works include the Hope’s Hunter, which was published in a collection called Africa 39 by Bloomsbury Press.  



Kankan Xie Photo

Kankan Xie (Indonesia)

Kankan Xie is a PhD candidate in Southeast Asian Studies at University of California, Berkeley, where he studies various historical and contemporary issues of Indonesia with a special focus on investigating the movements and networks of radical intellectuals across and beyond the Archipelago. Besides the dissertation project, Kankan has developed a strong interest in rural development of the region since 2008, when he worked for a grassroots NGO in a poverty-stricken village in West Java. He holds an MA in Asian Studies from Cornell University and a BA in Malay Language & Literature from Beijing Foreign Studies University, China.



Former Staff

Jenna Juwono Photo

Jenna Juwono (Study Coordinator - Indonesia)

Jenna Juwono is a Research Manager at the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) South East Asia, based in Jakarta. At J-PAL SEA, she focuses on several projects, including the T4D project.  Before becoming Research Manager, Jenna was a Senior Research Associate at J-PAL SEA, working closely with the project partners in Indonesia to ensure that the project runs according to plan.  Before joining JPAL, Jenna worked as an Area Development Program Manager for an international NGO working on community development projects ranging from health, education to economic development in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.   Jenna received her Bachelor’s Degree in East Asian Studies from Wesleyan University, Connecticut, USA in 2009.

Rohit Naimpally Photo

Rohit Naimpally (Quantitative Researcher)

Rohit Naimpally is a Research and Training Manager at the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab in the Department of Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He works on the development and dissemination of research and training resources related to randomized evaluations. Prior to joining J-PAL in 2013, Rohit worked at Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA), with a focus on financial inclusion studies in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, research methods and training, and data analysis. Rohit holds an M.A. in Social Sciences and a B.A. in Economics from the University of Chicago.

Lindsey Roots Photo

Lindsey Roots (Study Coordinator - Tanzania)

Lindsey Roots was the Tanzania Study Coordinator for the T4D project. She was responsible for coordinating with the project’s partner organizations in Tanzania and overseeing day-to-day project activities there. Prior to joining the T4D team Lindsey worked on the project management of large-scale socioeconomic surveys for Economic Development Initiatives, a survey firm in Tanzania. She holds a Master’s in Applied Economics from the University of Cape Town and a BSc in Economics from the London School of Economics.

Rachmat Reksa Samudra (Study Coordinator - Indonesia)

Rachmat Reksa Samudra is a Research Associate at the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) Southeast Asia, based in Jakarta. At J-PAL SEA, he focuses mainly on the T4D project, working closely with the project partners in Indonesia to ensure that the project runs according to plan. Prior joining J-PAL SEA, Reksa was a Teaching Assistant at the Department of Economics, University of Indonesia, for statistics for economics and business, basic econometrics, microeconometrics, and economics of poverty. Reksa received his Bachelor’s Degree in Economics from the University of Indonesia.

Hannah Hilligoss (Research & Program Assistant)

Hannah Hilligoss was formerly Research and Program Assistant for the Democratic Governance Program and for the Transparency for Development Program. Prior to joining the Ash Center, Hannah was a research intern at the Small Arms Survey, Geneva, and has acted as an Undergraduate Research Fellow in the Department of Political Science at Boston College. She holds a Bachelor of Arts in International Studies from Boston College where she completed an undergraduate thesis on the development of the U.S. drone programs in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Yemen.


Sarah Alphs

Sarah Alphs (Study Coordinator - Tanzania)

Sarah Alphs was involved in the design and implementation of the T4D pilot in Tanzania. Prior to her role with the T4D team, she worked with the William Davidson Institute and the Clinton Health Access Initiative on projects focused on improving access to critical health care services, medicines and diagnostics in sub-Saharan Africa. Alphs holds a Master of Public Health and a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science and Anthropology from the University of Michigan.